Case history No. 1: male in his mid sixties with history of fainting when he walked up hill. He had been examined by mulitple physicians and undergone xrays, MRI, and EKG with no abnormal findings. In a phone interview he mentioned that before the passed out he would develop pain in his ankles, knees, and hips- a sign that there was possible a trigeminal nerve component to his fainting (trigeminal nerve modulates pain perception in the brain). An examination was recommended. When he presented to the office, observation showed a very large jaw malalignment caused by orthodontic extraction therapy when he was a teenager. A 4 mm tall mouthpiece was made for him which gave him immediate relief. He reported a significant improvement in memory within about 1 week.